Turning Points in the History of Moraga
Before the People Came
Millions of years before people discovered the valley we now call Moraga Valley, nature began to write the geological history of the area.
The earth is estimated to be about 4 1/2 billion years old. Earth at one time was covered with water. After a long time the water receded or moved and a range of coastal mountains took shape. Then over the ages sediment washed down the slopes of the ancient mountains and was deposited on the shores of a sea that geologists call the San Pablo.
Ten million years ago the bed of San Pablo Sea began to lift and drain. Sediments from the sea floor were lifted up and formed the backbone of Rocky Ridge and Las Trampas Ridge, the two most prominent landmarks east of Moraga Valley. These ridges are about two million years old.
At the same time an active volcano sent lava over the present day Berkeley hills. Location of extinct volcano (Sibley).
Our rancho area is known for its fossils. In the area was a series of lakes and lagoons fed by a large river that flowed from a mountain range, the crest of which is now the Farallon Islands off the Golden Gate.
A tule lake was formed where Campolindo High School now stands. The cliff along Bollinger Canyon Road (near St. Mary’s College) has revealed many geologic treasures. Plants and animal fossils, seashells, bones, teeth and foot prints of extinct animals, such as mastodons, three toed horses and camels have all been found in the Moraga area. Even the vertebrae of a whale was discovered near Rheem and parts of a giant bear near Moraga Way and Glorietta Blvd.
The Moraga Valley area has changed over the past ten million years, tilting the land up, then dropping it down. It continues still, but at a slower pace.
No telling what you may find as you take walks along the old railroad trail or hike to Rocky Ridge or Las Trampas trail. No ancient animals but maybe arrowheads or shells.
Many freshmen from the University of California still come to the Bollinger Canyon area to study.
Native American Life in Moraga
The Miwok Indians were the original settlers of the Moraga Valley. The people who lived in the Moraga area are known as Saclan Indians. The Saclan lived in a “triblet” of 250 to 300 people. The location of their village changed according to the seasons. They moved to fish or hunt, gather seeds or harvest acorns.
The Scalans’ houses were built around a frame of tree branches and covered with tule matting. The tules were piled on 10 to 12 inches thick. (If you look at the creek across the street from Campolindo High School, you can still tules growing.) The house was pointed at the top and looked like a beehive. The door of the house was on the south side. This would allow light in for most of the day. In bad weather a fire was built in the middle of the house. The smoke from the fire would go out the hole in the roof. The floor of the house would be covered with several layers of tule mats. In cold weather rabbit skins would be used for blankets. There was always a fire burning outside the house. Cooking and eating would be outside. The Saclans did not have regular meal times. They would gather at the end of the day and eat before sundown. After eating they would gather around the fire and sing songs or tell stories.
The Saclans wore almost no clothes. Sometimes they would wear two pieces of cloth tied by a vine around their waist. Sometimes they made capes from animal skins. They had no shoes. When it was cold they would cover their bodies with mud. They also used mud mixed with ashes to make tattoos on their faces. The men had nose-sticks. For special celebrations they would make costumes out of colorful bird feathers.
In the mornings the Saclans would take a dip in a nearby river or lake and then scatter for the day. The men would take the boys and go hunting for rabbits or ground squirrels or birds or deer or insects such as grasshoppers. They would check the traps or snares they set the day before. If there was a large group of animals, the women would often help surround them and drive the animals into a circle where they were killed. The Saclan also fished. They would stun the fish and the Saclan would wade into the creek to catch the fish. Sometimes fish would be kept in a trap-cage in the creek to keep them fresh for several weeks. The fish or animals would be taken back to the camp; some would be cooked for dinner for several days. The rest would then be dried in the sun to save for when there was no fresh food. No part of the animals was wasted. They cooked and ate the meat; they made clothes out of the fur or skin or tools were made out of the bones.
The women would go out to gather nuts and berries and grasses for food. They gathered a lot of acorns from the oak trees in Moraga Valley. They would grind the acorns with a stone to make a mush (like oatmeal) which they cooked with water. For the Saclans acorns were like potatoes. They also ate pine nuts. They would gather hundreds of pine cones and throw them into the fire. This would cause the pine cones to open up and the pine nuts could be taken out. They would then roast the nuts to eat.
The Saclan women also gathered weeds, grasses and bark to make baskets. They had no bags, boxes, pots, pans, glasses or dishes. They used baskets. The women made many different kinds of baskets. One, shaped like a very large ice cream cone, was used to carry acorns or pine nuts on the backs like backpacks. They made baskets to cook in by placing hot rocks in the basket. Some baskets were woven so tightly they held water.
When food was plentiful the Saclan would do other things around the village. The men would weave nets for fishing or build traps or spears to catch animals and fish. They also made bows and arrows with arrowheads.
The children had games to play. One game they played with a hoop made from coiled bar. They would roll the hoop back and forth while other children tried to throw a spear through the hoop as it rolled by. In another game they would dig a hole in the ground and throw flat rocks at it. There were many large festivals and socializing between villages and triblets.
Artifacts from the Saclan have been found in Moraga. Lake LaSalle was to the north of St. Mary’s College. In 1828 there were skeletons found in the lake. Also found were several mortar stones and pestles near the Adobe, along Las Trampas Creek and along the upper San Leandro Creek. Obsidian arrowheads were also found in the bluffs along Bollinger Canyon Road, on Rheem Blvd and in Canyon.
In 1835 Joaquin Moraga and his cousin Juan Bernal formally requested a land grand from Governor Alvarado in return for “long, unpaid military service”. This was a common practice since Mexico passed a law in 1828 authorizing such grants. Moraga and Bernal were granted Rancho Laguna de los Palos Colorados in 1841.
The Moragas occupied temporary shelters and grazed cattle on the rancho long before title was granted to them, maybe as early as 1828. It was not until 1841 that the “Decree of Concession” granting Moraga and Bernal the land would finally be issued.
Moraga grazed approximately 1,000 head of cattle and 4,000 horses on their grant of 13,316 acres. Water for the livestock was obtained at the pond or laguna which was on the present-day site of Campolindo High School. The colorados or redwood grove did not interest Moraga. He did give permission to cut the redwoods in Canyon and the land was simply overrun by trespassers who went to work destroying the magnificent groves in a rush to supply the growing demand for lumber. The stand of redwoods was also used by sailors as a landmark to turn into the San Francisco Bay when sailing the coast of California. In 1853, Canyon was sold to Elam Brown, founder of Lafayette for $4,000. Much of the wood was used to build the homes of San Francisco and Sacramento. The population of Moraga grew to hundreds with these lumberjacks and the town became a rough, tough place to live. An early election in California saw more votes in Moraga than any other town in California. Courter’s Store was the only general store in town, located at the corner of Larch and Canyon Roads. Gun fights broke out often in Moraga with this wild group. On Sundays races were held around the store. It is rumored a man was hung in Moraga for stealing a horse.
In 1841 Moraga built a two-room house (kitchen separate from the main house) at its present location above Miramonte High School. Ceiling beams and flooring were made from local redwoods. It was built from bricks made of adobe mud with straw, manure and leather pieces in the bricks. This spot was chosen because an abundant spring or running water was nearby. The entire valley could be seen from this site because it was devoid of the many trees, shrubbery or flowers seen today in Moraga. Intruders, intent on stealing cattle or horses, could easily be seen approaching. Fandangos or parties were frequently held and families came to celebrate from as far away as San Jose to eat, dance and sing with the Moraga family.
Cattle were raised for the hides mainly. Once cattle were slaughtered, the hides were treated, stored and later sold at the Oakland markets. Also, hides/strips were used for furniture, fencing, clothing, shoes, etc.
The vast open areas of the rancho were also used for planting grains. This product was thrashed using 60-70 horses being driven around and treading on the grain. It was then winnowed on the spot by throwing it up with forks where the wind separated the chaff from the straw. Many Indians worked on the rancho and may have even made the bricks for the Adobe.
After the Gold Rush, disappointed gold seekers, adventurers and Yankee farmers moved down from the hills of the Mother Lode area and began squatting on Joaquin Moraga’s land. These squatters built homes on select land and then tried to say the land was “unclaimed”. However, when California became a state all Mexican citizens in California were made US citizens. Unfortunately, this law was reversed, and the Moraga family had to prove ownership of their land. This process took 17 years and in that time many squatters were well established in the Valley. These early homesites can still be seen in the hills around Moraga.
The Moragas only ranched like this until Joaquin’s death in 1855. By then the rancho had begun to dismantle. The squatters settled on Moraga-Bernal select plots, built houses, started to farm and went to Martinez to register their selections as “unclaimed” lots. Under the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, “Mexicans should be maintained and protected in the free enjoyment of their liberty and property and secured in the free exercise of their religion without restriction.” This gave American citizenship to Mexicans. However, this ruling was reversed by the Act of March 3, 1851 and now it was the responsibility of the grantees to prove the validity of their Mexican deeds.
The squatters stayed. The Moraga family now faced enormous expenses for attorney fees, grant surveys, court costs, witnesses, lodging, transportation and other expenses trying to prove their land title. Much of the land had mortgages as the Moraga children had borrowed money from banks and could not repay.
Joaquin Moraga understood little of the law. With the exception of six parcels, the old rancho had become the exclusive property of New York land speculator and lawyer Horace Carpentier.
Carpentier had been hired to remove the squatters from Moraga’s land. Due to lack of funds to pay Carpentier’s fees, the Moraga family turned over their land as payment to the notorious lawyer.
This one-man ownership by Carpentier set the demographic pattern for Moraga for the next 75 years.By 1860, the Moraga family was gone; big cattle grazing changed to smaller squatter dairies, farms and ranches. A number of squatters did acquire their land legally.Some remained as sharecroppers after Carpentier, or one of his relatives, acting as his agent, bought them out. These farms started just below the present Rheem Shopping Center, went over the hill to St. Mary’s Road and down St. Mary’s Road to Camino Pablo. What goods farmers did not grow they purchased at Courter’s Store. Early squatters and sharecroppers included the Allen, Carrick, Gann, Harrington, Hunsaker, Ivey, Kendall, Magee, Madson, Merrill, Reed, Southard and Whiting families, to name a few.
Normal development that occurs with multiple-owner communities was not the case for the Moraga Rancho. Individual landlords would dominate the economic life of the Rancho and would keep Moraga rural.
In the next 50 years small farms and ranches dotted the landscape. A community developed in Moraga where ranchers worked and socialized together. The ranchers were mostly Irish, Yankees, Scandinavian, and Northern Germans. They farmed as they wished and paid rent in cash.
- The Bosqui family farmed on what is now Campolindo High School; therefore the field is named Bosqui Field.
- The Carroll family was one of only three ranches sold by Carpentier in 1865 for $1,400 and was 255 acres at the intersection of present- day Moraga Road and Rheem Blvd. The family kept this land until 1983.
- Patrick McCosker squatted and ranched on the ridge above Indian Valley, arriving from Ireland in 1873.
- The Mulholand family rented land above what is now Rheem Shopping Center and grew barley and hay in 1876.
- The Trelut family squatted on 225 acres in Bollinger Canyon and later applied and won a homestead patent in 1882 (They were the first family to grow grapes in the area.), Frank Trelut’s grandfather took his crops into Oakland through the Kennedy Tunnel—a two day trip. Frank was a sharecropper on Old Jonas Hill Road, paying Bill Barnes rent; working with the crew that built Rheem Blvd. His wife delivered mail after she took her 4 boys to school, using her own car to deliver to about 50 families
- Jesse Williams was the only farmer to never relinquish his property to Carpentier, owning what ultimately became the Rheem Estate and the Hacienda today.
In 1889 Carpentier sold his land to General James A. Williamson and Angus Archibald Grant, forming the Moraga Land Association. They planned to develop Moraga into town lots and small ranches and construct a rail line from the Orinda Crossroads through Moraga to Lafayette. The project failed! The yellow house on Moraga Way, now owned by James Wright, was to be the workers quarters for the California and Nevada narrow gauge Railroad.
In 1912 the land then sold to Charles Hooper and The Charles A. Hooper Company. He sold parcels of land while renting the remaining property to sharecroppers.Hooper quickly sold all the land to James Irvine who established the Moraga Company. The largest land owner in California, Irvine turned the rancho into a vast agribusiness.
The change from small time farming to large scale corporate ranching was overwhelming for the farmers and the land. Sharecroppers could no longer use their farms as they wished and rent was not paid in cash. At harvest time payments to Bill Barnes, manager of the rancho, were paid in real crops he had selected from each sharecropper. The sleepy, backward region now became a giant conglomerate headed by one of California’s most powerful entrepreneurs. Sharecroppers were ordered to stop their dairying activities and restrict their efforts to planting and harvesting oats and hay. This action forced the Portuguese dairy men out of the valley.Acre after acre of the rancho was planted in walnuts, pears, peaches, sugar beets, pumpkins, navy beans, tomatoes and corn. Moraga became the largest pear producer in the world. Train loads of pears, walnuts, vegetables were shipped all over the United States from the train station across from the Barn (a local tavern and hotel). The operations of the rancho were moved from Burton Valley to the Moraga Ranch (by Safeway) and 100 to 150 workers were employed during harvest time while 12 to 45 workers were needed the rest of the year.Some of the land was marked for real estate activities through the sale of property to developers or subdivisions by the Moraga Company. These were 1-5-acre parcels and 500 acres was set aside for a township to be known as Moraga.
When the Oakland-Antioch Railroad was complete in 1913, Irvine began to implement his first real estate venture. The central portion of the town consisted of 21 blocks which were to form a series of concentric hexagons. Cutting through the development was the Bryant-Moraga Highway-Munster Street, now Country Club Drive – grandly decorated with a series of immense concrete urns down the center. In the middle of the subdivision steps led up to a rose garden atop a mound meant to be a park. The project failed and of the 200 lots, only one lot was sold, and five cottages built. These cottages were situated along Munster Street, which is now Country Club Drive. Although still there in the early 1960’s, the structures were burned down as practice for the Fire Department. A town center began in 1914 – the Moraga Barn, Willow Springs School and train station, and in 1920 a grocery store, Moraga Grocery.
In 1914 a country club and golf course were planned, shares were sold, but World War I and Prohibition forced the failure of this project. A Lafayette subdivision between First and Third Streets was successful.Valle Vista became a reality in 1914 with home sites that sold for 500 dollars each. Twenty of the proposed 57 homes were built. But in 1923 the homes were bought up by the East Bay Water Company in their work towards the construction of the San Leandro Reservoir.Hooper had sold land to John Carr for his son Alfred Carr and his son-in-law Frank G. Sanders. Irvine never acquired this land. In 1927 free land was given to St. Mary’s College in hopes this would promote development. This did not occur, at least at first. Although a new Master Plan for the town was developed, it did not succeed due to the stock market crash of 1929 and the ensuing Depression and World War II.
In 1936, when times were improving, lrvine sold 180 acres to develop Moraga Estates at Orinda’s Crossroads. In 1937 Donald Rheem bought the Williams property then owned by Gertrude Mallett and Alberta Higgins. His big push to develop the area came in 1944 when he purchased 906 acres and later another 530 acres, from the Moraga Company, the same year my father (Gordon Frazell) bought 80 acres in Bollinger Valley,
From 1945-1947 Irvine resumed his campaign to sell off lots for development. Most of this development was from Orinda Crossroads toward Moraga along Moraga Way. After WWII, Senator Breed and Bill Barnes pushed to have the United Nations in the Burton Valley Area. However, John D. Rockefeller gave land in New York which was used. James Irvine died in 1947.
Donald Rheem’s purchase of rancho lands saw the end of the monolithic ownership that had been the situation since Joaquin Moraga and Juan Bernal. There were now two firms operating in the area, each dividing its property among more and more individual owners. Thus began the creation of a viable community where for almost 130 years only few had lived and worked. See Donald Laird Rheem, “father” of the Rheem Valley.
1974 – Moraga becomes a Town
Revised by Susan Sperry, Moraga Historical Society